The DEAs own conservative administrative law judge, Francis Young, after taking medical testimony for 15 days and reviewing hundreds of DEA/NIDA documents positioned against the evidence introduced by marijuana reform activists, concluded in September 1988 that marijuana is one of the safest therapeutically active substances known to man.
But despite this preponderance of evidence, then DEA Director John Lawn ordered on December 30, 1989, that cannabis remain listed as a Schedule I narcotichaving no known medical use. His successor, Robert Bonner, who was appointed by Bush and kept in office by Clinton, was even more draconian in his approach to hemp/marijuana as medicine. Clintons current DEA administrator, Thomas Constantine (appointed 1993), upholds policies far worse even than Bonners.
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